But the two chiefs were extraordinarily hamhanded in their initial affairs. One problem is the Futenma Marine Corps airbase in the city of Ginowan in Okinawa, whose 80,000 inhabitants are disrupted every two minutes by the deafening noise of American planes taking off and landing. As part of the 2006 agreement to reduce the presence of U.S. troops in Japan, the futenma base was to be transferred to the less populated city of Nago, Okinawan, and about 8,000 navy soldiers and their relatives are expected to be transferred to Guam. The U.S. government has demanded that Japan pay a large portion of the costs of the moves. But Tokyo has repeatedly asked for more time to study alternatives to the plan, and Hatoyama said Japan would not decide its position until May 2010. The 1954 Mutual Security Assistance Pact initially included a military assistance program that included Japan`s acquisition of funds, equipment and services for the country`s essential defence. Although Japan no longer received assistance from the United States in the 1960s, the agreement continued to serve as the basis for purchase and licensing agreements guaranteeing the interoperability of the two nations` weapons and the disclosure to Japan of secret data, including international intelligence reports and secret technical information. The fall of the Soviet Union led the Allies to adopt new guidelines in 1997 that extended the location of the Japanese army to operate from its original islets to the “surrounding areas”. Some saw this as a greater responsibility for their own defence.
In bilateral operations, the armed forces and self-defence forces will coordinate their respective defence capabilities, use them in a timely and effective manner. In doing so, they will conduct effective joint operations between the land, sea and air services of their respective armed forces. Self-defense forces will primarily conduct defence operations on Japanese territory and its surrounding waters and in airspace, while U.S. forces will support the operations of the self-defense forces. U.S. forces will also conduct operations to complement the capabilities of the self-defense forces. The two governments will similarly set common standards for the preparation of cooperation actions in the areas surrounding Japan, so that they can agree on a level of preparedness. The United States has approved about $20 billion in foreign military sales to Japan. including Japan`s purchase of F-35s, E-2D air warning aircraft, the tanker KC-46, the Global Hawk unmanned aerial system and rotor 22 aircraft, as well as missiles such as the AIM 120 advanced medium-range aerial missiles, and UGM-84 Harpoon and SM-3A block II ballistic missiles. On 19 January 1960, Japanese Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi and US Secretary of State Christian Herter signed a landmark treaty. It forced the United States to defend Japan in the event of an attack by Japan and provided bases and ports to U.S. forces in Japan.