As of 10 November 2020, Russian troops and armaments, which were to be a peacekeeping force under the agreement, are expected to enter the Nagorno-Karabakh region.  The force was reportedly airlifted to Armenia prior to the signing of the agreement.  On 12 November, the Russian force consisted mainly of personnel from the 15th Motor Rifle Brigade, which had entered Stepanakert and began deploying observation posts throughout the region.  This publication is a classic “ceasefire reading” written by experienced intermediaries. Originally produced for an East African audience, it has since been used for training in several other locations, including Nepal and Sri Lanka. It should be noted that Julian Hottinger, Jeremy Brickhill (mentioned above) and Jan Erik Wilhelmsen are the ceasefire specialists with the most important comparative expertise in this line. It was good to see the human spirit reigning between all sides on the front, sharing and brotherhood. All was well until the senior commanders learned of the effects of the ceasefire, assuring their anger at a return to hostilities.  Therefore, when a pause in fighting was seen as an urgent necessity due to the failure of the Geneva III talks and the tense situation in the region, US-Russian negotiators deliberately hijacked the notion of a ceasefire.
To appease the opposition, they opted for a term with less baggage: the cessation of hostilities. We thus come to two key questions that policy makers must take into account when planning a ceasefire: (i) what is in a ceasefire agreement? and (ii) how to ensure that the ceasefire is linked to other political achievements and longer-term security transformation goals? The word ceasefire is more common than the cessation of hostilities, in part because it is shorter and less clumsy. It is generally used to mean a broader arrangement than a basic white flag ceasefire. This could be a painstakingly negotiated and formally signed agreement and could involve, for example, the withdrawal of heavy weapons from the front line, the creation of demilitarized zones, the delimitation of control lines and the establishment of rules for maintaining contacts between opposing parties. Reading 1: Brickhill, J. (2007). Protection of the civilian population through peace agreements.